Online Bookstore

The following book titles are ones that I am personally familiar with and have found to be informative and helpful. I’ve listed them here, in random order, in case you need suggestions on some of the better books to add to your library. If you know of other titles that I should list, please let me know and I’ll see about adding them. Note that these are listed in random order, not in order of the best reference or the best book to buy. Some of these are also available in electronic editions for the Kindle reader.


The Guerrilla Guide to Robert’s Rules


A really great introduction to Robert’s Rules if you need to get off the ground fast and hard. This no-nonsense book gives you a head start without spending time on the historical aspects of parliamentary procedure.

Robert’s Rules of Order In Brief


One of the “must have” books in your library. This brief version of the classic Robert’s Rules of Order brings all the important facts into one handy guide.


Use this book in your regular meetings for quick reference, answering questions of procedure or simply finding out the best way to handle certain processes.

The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure


An alternate parliamentary authority, and probably the next most common set of standard rules in existence. This set of procedures was recently updated by the American Institute of Parliamentarians for day-to-day use by organizations.

The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Robert’s Rules


A great introduction to Robert’s Rules from one of the most prolific parliamentarians writing today. If you’ve never spent time with Robert’s Rules, this would be a good first stop for your journey.

Riddick’s Rules of Procedure

A streamlined alternative to Robert’s Rules. This book serves as a glossary and collection of rules for modern meetings and organizations.

Robert’s Rules for Dummies


Another great introduction to Robert’s Rules in the tried and true Dummies style. If you’ve never spent time with Robert’s Rules, this would be a good first stop for your journey.

Robert’s Rules of Order, Newly Revised, 10th Edition


The seminal and official book on parliamentary procedure. This is the original document, updated to the 10th Edition, by descendants of the original Henry Robert. This is a “must have” book for anyone doing significant work in parliamentary procedure. It’s thick, but it is definitive and helpful.

Notes and Comments on Robert’s Rules of Order


The comments and opinions of a known parliamentary scholar as he goes through the entire Robert’s Rules of Order text.


If you’ve ever wondered why something was written the way it was, or what the thinking behind a procedure is, then this will likely answer your question.

Cannon’s Concise Guide to Rules of Order


A modern interpretation and guide through rules of order, with a view towards to how to use rules practically and efficiently in meetings and deliberations.


Parliamentary Procedure at a Glance


One of the best quick references to parliamentary procedure. A great help for new users of parliamentary procedure, chairpersons or committee members.


Robert’s Rules in Plain English

A revised and concise reference to Robert’s Rules, newly updated for changes in the 10th Edition.This version includes an extensive glossary as well as references for electronic meetings and modern technology use in relation to parliamentary procedures.


Why is a certification important?

Credentials are important in professional services because they provide you — the client — with a sense of how educated a person is in a specific area of knowledge. I maintain membership in several parliamentary organizations, and have a credentialed certification in parliamentary procedure, so that you can have confidence in my abilities and in the services I can offer your organization.

I am a member of both the National Association of Parliamentarians (NAP) and a past member of the American Institute of Parliamentarians (AIP). These two organizations form the backbone of parliamentary knowledge world-wide. Each organization has a slightly different focus, yet between the two of them, there is much to share and learn. NAP focuses exclusively on Robert’s Rules of Order, the most commonly used parliamentary authority in the world today, and its members are experts within that realm. AIP generalizes on several parliamentary authorities, giving its members a wide range of parliamentary knowledge for a variety of organizational needs.

Within NAP, I am a Registered Parliamentarian (RP) and credentialed as such. Within AIP, I was a regular member. I am also a member and past board member of the California State Association of Parliamentarians (CSAP), and a past Southern Area Director for CSAP. I also participate with local parliamentarian units near me, and two online parliamentarian units.


I have been involved with parliamentary procedure for over 30 years in a number of areas.

I have been an active member of many non-profit and community organizations, giving advice and training on parliamentary topics. I have also served on two Board of Directors in director and officer capacities, and have spent considerable time helping organizations improve their meetings through better use of parliamentary practices. I have served as a parliamentarian for several units, Councils, and Districts with the California State PTA for many years, and am a member of the Board of Managers for the California State PTA where I serve on the Bylaws Committee.

My involvement with parliamentary procedure started back in the late 1970’s, when I joined debate in high school. Although I was primarily interested in the debate team, I was also involved with DeMolay, a fraternal youth organization that is an offshoot of the Shrine organization. In DeMolay, all meetings are held in compliance with Robert’s Rules of Order, which I found interesting and exciting. I participated as a member of a parliamentary procedure team (a “Parli Pro team”), where team members are challenged with a variety of parliamentary scenarios, and scored on how well they know Robert’s Rules and how properly applied that knowledge is. It began a long association with parliamentary procedure that continues to this day.


Some of the groups and organizations I have helped in the past:

  • DEC Users Society (DECUS)
  • Oracle Development Tools Users Group (ODTUG)
  • San Diego Mountain Rescue Team (SDMRT)
  • Penasquitos Lutheran Church (PLC)
  • International Oracle Users Group (IOUG)
  • Axapta Users Group (AXUG)
  • Your Conference Connection
  • California State PTA (unit, Council, and District level)
  • Haas Avocado Board of Managers
  • San Ysidro Health

I am interested in helping other organizations through instruction, advice and training, and can offer a wide variety of services that may be of interest to you. I look forward to understanding your organization’s specific parliamentary needs.


My membership and credentials can be verified through these links:

  • In the NAP organization, I can be found here.
  • In the AIP organization, I am a past member.
  • Within CSAP, you can find more information about me here.


Bylaws are designed to help the group function in an orderly manner. A copy of each organizations Bylaw should be provided to all officers and board members. Each member should be responsible for making a thorough study of them. A copy of the bylaws should be made available to any member of the association upon request.

If a unit cannot locate the bylaws, a committee should be appointed by the president and chaired by the parliamentarian. Standard bylaws should be obtained from the state office for a nominal fee. Standard bylaws are sometimes pre-printed and provide blank spaces to fill in according to an organization’s needs, but generally bylaws are written with each specific organization in mind.

Changing Bylaws

Bylaws should be reviewed every year. Appoint a small committee with the parliamentarian as chairman to study them, make recommendations, and forward through channels to the organization voting membership. Generally, changing bylaws requires a 2/3 majority vote passed in order to become adopt.

Standing Rules

Whenever members are required or permitted to take any action at a meeting, a written notice of the meeting shall be given, not less than 10 days nor more than 90 days before the date of the meeting, to each member, who on the recorded date for the notice of the meeting, is entitled to vote at such meeting.

Standing rule outlines the procedures of the organization that are not included in the bylaws and must not conflict with the bylaws. Some examples of the differences are:

  • Bylaws state when the meetings of the association and executive board are held.
  • Standing Rules tell where and what time these meetings are held.
  • Bylaws give the primary responsibilities of officers and chairmen.
  • Standing Rules give the specifics.

If the Bylaws state that the first vice president is responsible for the program, the Standing Rules would list the various chairmen, who work with the vice president under the first vice presidents title, such as program, Founders Day, Honorary Service Award, hospitality, refreshments, and program booklet.

If the organization has supplies and/or equipment, the Standing Rules would state who is responsible for them and where they would be kept.

Standing Rules might also list:

  • Who has the responsibility for securing the outgoing president’s pin and its inscription.
  • If there is to be an installation of officers, who is responsible for selecting the installing officers and when the installation should take place.

In short, Bylaws are hard and fast rules that may be amended only with prior notice to the membership.

Standing rules are the details of regular work that may be changed from administration to administration or from meeting to meeting. They generally require a two-thirds (2/3rd) majority vote without notice and a majority vote with 30 days notice to adopt or amend.

Robert’s Rules of Order

Robert’s Rules of Order is the short title of a book containing rules of order intended to be adopted as a parliamentary authorityfor use by a deliberative assembly.

Currently in its tenth edition and published under the name Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (and often referred to using the initialism RONR) it is the most widely used parliamentary authority in the United States, according to the National Association of Parliamentarians, a professional association of approximately 4,000 members which provides education and accreditation certifications for parliamentarians.

History and origins

The first edition of the book, whose full title was Pocket Manual of Rules of Order for Deliberative Assemblies, was published in February 1876 by then U.S. Army Brigadier General Henry Martyn Robert (1837–1923) with the short title Robert’s Rules of Order placed on its cover. The procedures prescribed by the book were loosely modeled after those used in the United States House of Representatives, with such adaptations as Robert saw fit for use in ordinary societies. The author’s interest in parliamentary procedure began in 1863 when he was chosen to preside over a church meeting and, although he accepted the task, felt that he did not have the necessary knowledge of proper procedure. In his later work as an active member of several organizations, he discovered that members from different areas of the country had very different views regarding what the proper parliamentary rules were, and these conflicting views hampered the organizations in their work. He eventually became convinced of the need for a new manual on the subject, one which would enable many organizations to adopt the same set of rules.


The book is designed for use in ordinary societies rather than legislative assemblies, and it is the most commonly adopted parliamentary authority among societies in the United States. The book claims to be a “codification of the present-day general parliamentary law (omitting provisions having no application outside legislative bodies).” This statement does not imply any approbation on the part of the courts, and the “general parliamentary law” is related neither to statutory legal requirements nor to common-law precedent derived from court judgments. Being widely accepted, and being based for the most part on long-standing traditions of parliamentary procedure, however, the current edition of the book is a reliable reference. Nevertheless, the provisions of any particular manual are not, as a general matter, legally binding upon an assembly that has not formally adopted it as its parliamentary authority; any such manual can at best be cited as “persuasive.” In addition, a number of changes have been made to recent editions, such as provisions dealing with videoconferences, teleconferences, and email, which now makes these editions more than merely codifications of the “present-day general parliamentary law” as existed at the time Robert was originally writing.


Parliamentary Procedure

Parliamentary procedure is the body of rulesethics, and customs governing meetings and other operations of clubs,organizationslegislative bodies, and other deliberative assemblies. It is part of the common law originating primarily in the practices of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, from which it derives its name.

In the United States, parliamentary procedure is also referred to as parliamentary lawparliamentary practicelegislative procedure, or rules of order. In the United KingdomAustraliaNew ZealandSouth Africa, and other English-speaking countries it is often called chairmanshipchairing, the law of meetingsprocedure at meetings, or the conduct of meetings.

At its heart is the rule of the majority with respect for the minority. Its object is to allow deliberation upon questions of interest to the organization and to arrive at the sense or the will of the assembly upon these questions. Self-governing organizations follow parliamentary procedure to debate and reach group decisions—usually by vote—with the least possible friction.

Rules of order consist of rules written by the body itself (often referred to as bylaws), but also usually supplemented by a published parliamentary authority adopted by the body. Typically, national, state, and other full-scale legislative assemblies have extensive internally written rules of order, whereas non-legislative bodies write and adopt a limited set of specific rules as the need arises.


In the English-speaking world, the British House of Commons is the originating source for most rules of order. These rules have evolved into two separate sets: American parliamentary procedure as generally followed in the United States; and Westminster parliamentary procedure, followed in Commonwealth countries (except for Canada, which uses a home-grown version) such as United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, India, South Africa, and many other Commonwealth countries. Various attempts have been made to codify the US variant, and the most common version in use is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised. In Canada, Parliament uses Bourinot’s Rules of Order.

Parliamentary procedure is based on the principles of allowing the majority to make decisions effectively and efficiently (majority rule), while ensuring fairness towards the minority and giving each member or delegate the right to voice an opinion. Voting determines the will of the assembly. While each assembly may create their own set of rules, these sets tend to be more alike than different. A common practice is to adopt a standard reference book on parliamentary procedure and modify it through special rules of order that supersede the adopted authority.

A parliamentary structure conducts business through motions, which cause actions. Members bring business before the assembly by introducing main motions, or dispose of this business through subsidiary motions and incidental motions. Parliamentary procedure also allows for rules in regards to nomination, voting, disciplinary action, appeals, dues, and the drafting of organization chartersconstitutions, and bylaws.


Parliamentary Authority

Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised, first published in 1876 by Colonel Henry Martyn Robert, is currently in its tenth edition, published in 2000, is the most popular and well-known parliamentary authority.

The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure, first published in 1950 by Alice Sturgis and referred to as TSC or Sturgis, is currently in its fourth edition, published in 2001. It is used by many medical associations of physicians and dentists, including the American Medical Association House of Delegates and American Association of Orthodontists as well as by the Association of Flight Attendants and American Library Association.

Demeter’s Manual of Parliamentary Law and Procedure, first published in 1948 by George Demeter and called “the Blue Book,” is the third-most popular parliamentary authority. It is often favored by labor unions.

Rules in a parliamentary authority can be superseded by the group’s constitution, bylaws or by adopted procedural rules (with a few exceptions). In RONR the adopted procedural rules are called special rules of order. Assemblies that do not adopt a parliamentary authority may use an existing parliamentary authority by custom, or may consider themselves governed by the “common parliamentary law”, or “common law of parliamentary procedure”. RONR notes that a society that has adopted bylaws that do not designate a parliamentary authority may adopt one by the same vote required to adopt special rules of order. A mass meeting can adopt a parliamentary authority by a simple majority vote. RONR notes that “in matters on which an organization’s adopted parliamentary authority is silent, provisions found in other works on parliamentary law may be persuasive – that is, they may carry weight in the absence of overriding reasons for following a different course – but they are not binding on the body.”

Some societies write their own parliamentary authority for use specifically for their own assembly.

Resources We Offer

In addition to our list of services that we can provide for you or your organization, we have a number of other informative resources for you to use:

  1. Parliamentary Key Concepts

    Perhaps you aren’t completely clear on what parliamentary procedure is, or how it can benefit your organization. Or maybe you have a basic understanding of Robert’s Rules of Order, but you don’t know how all the pieces fit together. In that case, start with this section. The key concepts of parliamentary process are explained and tied together so that you can see how each part supplements the others and builds a cohesive whole.

  2. My “Thought Blog

    Random musings on parliamentary topics. There is an open ended blog format, with no set agenda here and no timetable for postings. As intriguing topics come to my attention that seem worthy of discussion, thought or opinion, I will share my thoughts with the world. I would definitely welcome comment and ideas of your own as well. Sometimes the topics might not even by related to parliamentary concepts.

  3. Repository of my parliamentary opinions

    Formal opinions I’ve written that were provided for public benefit. No personally identifiable information is used to protect privacy, but if I find something worthy of discussion and comment, I will include it here.

  4. Brainteasers

    Think of these as puzzles for the parliamentary procedure crowd. The goal here is to present something that’s not obvious on the surface, or which has a tricky answer, and challenge my peers to solve it. I will also give my own opinion and answer.

  5. Selected Readings

    I am not the only Parliamentarian who blogs or maintains a web site full of opinions. There are many other excellent resources on the web, published by experts and leaders in the field. This list is an attempt to point out some real jewels that you might find helpful and/or interesting.

  6. Online Bookstore

    My suggestions on which books and resources you simply must have in order to best understand parliamentary procedure and parliamentary authority. Browse through the selections and read my interpretation of why you need each resource.

  7. Links to other parliamentary sources

    Web sites and other online resources for those who want to learn more from others in the parliamentary community. These are all off-site links for your own edification.

American Institute of Parliamentarians

The American Institute of Parliamentarians (AIP) is a not-for-profit educational organization started in 1958 to advance parliamentary procedure. AIP currently has about 1,200 members in the USA, Canada and internationally.

AIP is unique in that it stresses familiarity with several parliamentary authorities, rather than relying exclusively on Robert’s Rules of Order (as the National Association of Parliamentarians does, for example). This diversity enables AIP members to leverage the history and theory of parliamentary practice, giving organizations options in their use of parliamentary procedures. Members of AIP were involved in revising and editing the latest copy of The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure, for example.

The objectives of AIP are:

  • promote use of effective democratic, parliamentary practices;
  • promote preparation and use of parliamentary literature;
  • promote teach of parliamentary procedure;
  • promote the training and certification of Parliamentarians;
  • promote wider use of Parliamentarians;
  • maintain a representative, democratic organization

AIP currently maintains four levels of membership:

  1. Member – anyone interested in parliamentary procedure who pays their dues. No examination required.
  2. Certified Parliamentarian (CP) – requires a written examination plus continuing service credits. There are approximately 60 CP’s in the world today. This level is similar to the NAP Regular Member (RM) level with the exception of requiring continuing service credits to achieve this title.
  3. Certified Professional Parliamentarians (CPP) – a CP with the addition an secondary oral examination covering several other parliamentary authorities, plus additional continuing service credits. There are approximately 50 CPP’s in the world today. This level is similar to the NAP Registered Parliamentarian (RP) certification.
  4. Designated Teacher of Parliamentary Procedure (CP-T/CPP-T) – Adjunct certification to either the CP or CPP level, showing evidence of monitored teaching experience in parliamentary procedure. This level is similar to the NAP Professional Registered Parliamentarian (PRP) certification.


National Association of Parliamentarians

The National Association of Parliamentarians (NAP) is the oldest and largest non-profit association of Parliamentarians in the world, with more chapters and service units than any other parliamentary organization. NAP was organized in 1930 and today has about 4,000 members in the USA, Canada and other countries.

The goals of NAP are to:

  • encourage its members and the general public to learn the principles and practice of democratic decision-making;
  • help teachers instruct people of all ages in parliamentary procedure at all levels;
  • promote collaboration and professional development among Parliamentarians;
  • provide widely recognized, authoritative accreditation of Parliamentarians serving the general public

In contrast to the American Institute of Parliamentarians, NAP focuses almost exclusively on Robert’s Rules of Order, rather than on a variety of parliamentary authorities. This focus allows them to become experts on Robert’s Rules of Order. Many Parliamentarians are members of both the NAP and AIP organizations.

NAP’s organizational structure provides for four levels of membership:

  1. Provisional member – open to anyone interested in parliamentary procedure who pays their dues.
  2. Regular member (RM) – candidates must pass a written examination, prior to becoming a member, from a pool of 300 questions. This level is similar to the AIP Certified Parliamentarian (CP) certification, but does not require continuing service credits.
  3. Registered Parliamentarian (RP) – regular members who pass an secondary written examination from a pool of 1,500 questions, including open-ended research questions. This level is similar to the AIP Certified Professional Parliamentarian (CPP) in terms of knowledge and diligence required for certification.
  4. Professional Registered Parliamentarian (PRP) – an RP who teaches parliamentary procedure or acts in a professional capacity, and is required to complete continuing education credits, plus an oral examination, to remain certified. This level is similar to the AIP Certified Professional Parliamentarian-Teacher (CPP-T) certification.

The NAP California division provides direct support and training for members located in California. Their web site is the California State Association of Parliamentarians (CSAP).

The NAP California division is further broken down into localized area units, such as the CSAP group for the San Diego “Sigma Delta” unit.